Public policy is the set of laws, regulations, actions, and funding priorities about a certain topic that are established by a government or its representatives. The people who hold an interest in public policy include everyone from policymakers, bureaucrats, interest groups, and media representatives to the general public. Everyone has their own interests and values, which makes it impossible for policymakers to make policies that make everyone happy. This makes policymaking a complex and drawn-out process.
The social sciences can provide some help in making this process less complex. For example, many government agencies hire historians to advise on proposed policies, because historical context can teach policymakers about past successes and failures and avoid making the same mistakes.
Another social science that affects policy-making is Sociology. Sociology helps policymakers analyze the social impacts of policies on various groups and create inclusive, equitable policies that fulfill the diverse needs of their constituents.
Psychology is another social science that can help policymakers. Through psychology, policymakers can understand the different factors that influence human behavior and decision-making and make more effective policies that promote positive, law-abiding behavior.
However, most if not all social issues, such as immigration, social justice, and health care are complex, and while the social sciences can provide context, they can’t provide the concrete answers or evidence that policymakers want. One limitation of social sciences is that most of the issues it deals with are influenced by many different factors including culture, values, and individual choices, which are difficult to isolate or measure their effects accurately. Another limitation is that their data is less accurate and more subjective since social sciences often use surveys, interviews, and observations as data sources, things that may be affected by biases, errors, or the opinions and interpretations of both the researchers and the participants.
To successfully address complex social issues, policymakers should incorporate the social sciences into an interdisciplinary approach that looks at issues from multiple angles and combines data from multiple fields before making a well-informed decision.
Somewhere policymakers could apply this approach is climate change. Climate change affects not only our global temperature but also the quality of our water and air. Some of the pollutants that cause climate change like methane and black carbon are harmful to our health, and while most people don’t experience its effects in their day-to-day lives, some especially vulnerable communities suffer major health risks from these pollutants which can contaminate their air and water supply.
In Colorado, for example, many communities live near mountains. As mountains become hotter and drier, more metal is leaching into the streams, making the water increasingly acidic and undrinkable. To brainstorm and design the best policy to help these communities, policymakers could combine climate science with economics and sociology. Through this approach, policymakers can gain a more comprehensive understanding of the social and economic impacts of their proposed policies, and as a result, be able to design policies that best help these vulnerable communities in an effective and sustainable way.
The social sciences are an essential part of policymaking, drawing on fields such as history, sociology, and psychology. By using an interdisciplinary approach that combines the social sciences with other relevant fields, policymakers can design more effective policies; the social sciences will help policymakers to understand and successfully address the diverse needs and interests of different individuals, and promote dialogue and cooperation among them, while other fields can provide different perspectives and important data. This will lead to more innovative, effective policies that will bring about a better and more inclusive future for everyone.